Adults of this species can reach a total length of up to 60 cm (24 in), with the tail accounting for more than half. Some sexual dimorphism is present: males can be distinguished from females by a wider cloacal opening, a wider base of the tail, a larger head and beard, and the possession of hemipenes. Males also have more pronounced femoral pores than females (these can be seen as waxy bumps on the underside of the back legs). Bearded dragons vary widely in colour, including brown, reddish-brown, red, yellow, white and orange. They are capable of undergoing moderate changes in the shade of their colour to help scales along both sides of the throat, neck, and head form many narrow spines which run down the side of the body to the tail.