Native to the Caspian region from eastern Turkey, Cyprus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.
Like the domestic sheep, mouflons mainly graze (eat grass), but they also occasionally browse (eat from shrubs or trees).

The mouflon is protected in Armenia and Azerbaijan. In Turkey and Iran, hunting is only allowed with a special license. The population in Cyprus is listed as a strictly protected species in the Habitats Directive of the European Union and has been listed in CITES Appendix I since November 2019.